Self-presentation and Interacting with Others

  • Animal Communication
  • Humans communicate with each other through language, non-verbal cues (smile, frown, etc)., and visual cues (ex. painting rooms pink vs. black)
    • Other animals have ways of communicating as well, with many non-verbal cues and visual cues, and other cues not used by humans.
  • Who are animals communicating with?
    • Members of same species, or members of other species like humans.
    • Autocommunication – can give information to themselves. Ex. bats and echolocation
  • What are they trying to communicate?
    • Mating rituals, to attract opposite sex
    • To establish/defend territory
    • To convey information about food location
    • Alarm calls, to warn others about predators
    • Signal dominance and submission
  • Watch about for anthropomorphism – attributing human characteristics to non-human animals, ex. pet sleeping with you at night.
  • Types of Animal Communication
    • Sound – can convey a lot of information
      • mating calls, warning sounds, etc. Useful because it’s fast, can reach many, but not very private and exposes the animal’s location.
    • Chemical signals – Gain info from the environment through smells. They can release scents called pheromones. Can detect predators using smell, or presence of other animals. Tends to be a lot slower than sound, but a lot longer lasting. But can be “noisy” – a lot of chemical signals in a given area.
    • Somatosensory communication – Touch and movement.. Can also convey food location (bees), pair bonding (birds cuddle/prune mates), body language. Also seismic communication (ex. movement of bug in spider’s web signals to spider to find it), electro-communication (fish)
      • mating dances
    • Visual cues – to find a mate
      • color on birds. Mimicry, camouflage.
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