Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is a natural particle with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.1 The fundamental organic capacity of a nitrogenous base is to connect nucleic acids together. A nitrogenous base owes its essential properties to the lone pair of electrons of a nitrogen atom. A nucleotide comprises of a nitrogenous base, a sugar and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleotides are the atomic building-squares of DNA and RNA. A nucleoside comprises of a nitrogenous base covalently appended to a sugar, however, without the phosphate group. At the point when the phosphate group of a nucleotide is severed by hydrolysis, the rest of the structure is a nucleoside. The sugar shown in a nucleoside or a nucleotide is either ribose or deoxyribose.1 Five nitrogenous bases are utilized as a part of the making of nucleotides, which thus develop the nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. These nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and uracil (U). Adenine is constantly matched with thymine, and guanine is constantly combined with cytosine. These are known as base sets. Uracil is just present in RNA, supplanting thymine. Pyrimidines incorporate thymine, cytosine, and uracil. They have a solitary ring structure. Purines incorporate adenine and guanine. They have a double (twofold) ring structure. 


Ribose is utilized as a part of creating diverse sorts of RNAs, for example, messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and small nuclear RNA (snRNA), including adenosine triphosophate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), both of which are hotspots for energy. The sugar phosphate spine is a critical structural segment of DNA. It is comprised of 5-carbon deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups. Deoxyribose is a 5 carbon sugar ring, with a comparable structure as that of ribose.1 The fundamental contrast between the two lies in the absence of hydroxyl (OH-) and presentation of a hydrogen atom that has its spot on the second carbon molecule. The deoxyribose sugar highlighted in DNA has an arrangement of 5 carbons and 3 oxygens and makes up the sugar-phosphate spine which holds the purines and pyrimidines (connected by hydrogen bonds) in the DNA twofold helix shape. People have 99.5% likenesses with different people in their DNA. These sugars are connected together by a phosphodiester bond, between carbon 4 of their chain, and a CH2 amass that is joined to a phosphate ion. They are critical in the capacity of DNA. DNA is wound into a right-handed double helix. The strands are anti-parallel, that is, one runs 3′ to 5′, the other run 5′ to 3′.This is done by the sugar phosphate backbone twisting around itself in a coil. The purpose of this twisting is to protect the bases inside it, and prevent them from being damaged by the environment.1 DNA is very stable due to rungs of ladder is hydrophobic and phosphate sugar backbone of DNA is negatively charged. These features make DNA can repel water and would not hydrolysed and breakdown by the aqueous environment. One turn of this helix is 34nm long, the diameter of it is 2nm, and there are ten bases attached per turn at 0.34nm. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides



1) Bruce Alberts, A. J. (2007). Molecular Biology of the Cell.

2) Van Holde KE, M. C. (1996). Biochemistry. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co., Inc.

3) NV, B. (2002). Medical Biochemistry. San Diego: Harcourt/Academic Press.

4) Suman Khowala, D. V. (2008, June 4). Biomolecules: (introduction, structure & function) . Retrieved from

5) H. M. Asif, M. A. (2011, January 21). Carbohydrates. Retrieved from International Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics:


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