Ions in Solutions

Common name Formula
Hydroxide OH
Chloride Cl
Hypochlorite ClO
Chlorite ClO2
Chlorate ClO3
Carbonate CO32-
Hydrogen Carbonate (Bicarbonate) HCO3
Sulfate SO42-
Hydrogen Sulfate (Bisulfate) HSO4
Sulfite SO32-
Thiosulfate S2O32-
Nitrate NO3
Nitrite NO2
Phosphate PO43-
Phosphite PO33-
Cyanide CN
Peroxide O22-
Oxalate C2O42-
Acetate C2H3O2
Dichromate Cr2O72-
Permanganate MnO4
Hydronium H3O+
Ammonium NH4+


Hydration is where water forms a shell around ions in solution. Another name for hydration is solvation. A solvation shell is the solvent interface of any chemical compound or biomolecule that constitutes the solute. When the solvent is water it is often referred to as a hydration shell. The hydrogen ion in aqueous solution is no more than a proton, a bare nucleus. Although it carries only a single unit of positive charge, this charge is concentrated into a volume of space that is only about a hundred-millionth as large as the volume occupied by the smallest atom. The resulting extraordinarily high charge density of the proton strongly attracts it to any part of a nearby atom or molecule in which there is an excess of negative charge. In the case of water, this will be the lone pair (unshared) electrons of the oxygen atom; the tiny proton will be buried within the lone pair and will form a shared-electron bond with it, creating a hydronium ion, H3O+



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2) Hayek, D. (2014, April). Conjugate Acids and Conjugate Bases. Retrieved from Socratic:

3) Chieh, C. (2016, March). Retrieved from University of Waterloo :

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