• Emotions: Limbic System
    • Responsible for storage/retrieval of memories, especially ones tied to emotions (serves as control for basic emotion and drives)
      • Mnemonic: Hippo wearing a HAT. Hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus.
    • Thalamussensory relay station, everything you hear/taste/etc. end up in thalamus, which directs them to appropriate areas in cortex.
      • Emotions contingent on senses.
      • Smell is only one that bypasses the thalamus – goes to areas closer to amygdala.
    • Amygdala – aka aggression center.
      • If you stimulate amygdala, produces anger/violence and fear/anxiety.
      • If you destroy it, get mellowing effect.
        • Kluver-Bucy syndrome – bilateral destruction of amygdala, can result in hyperorality (put things in mouth a lot), hypersexuality, and disinhibited behavior.
      • Hippocampus – key role in forming new memories. Convert short to long-term memory.
        • If destroyed, still have old memories intact, just can’t make new ones.
      • Hypothalamus (below the thalamus, tiny) – for limbic system, it regulates the ANS (fight or flight vs. rest and digest).
        • Controls endocrine system.
  • Emotions: Cerebral Hemispheres and Prefrontal Cortex
  • Role of cerebral cortex in emotions. One way is in terms of the L and R hemispheres.
    • Positive emotions evoke more activity on left side, and negative emotions evoke more activity on right side.
      • Little kids playing in group – more social kids had more activity in left hemisphere, and isolated kids more activity in right.
      • More positive, cheerful people had more activity in left, more depressed and timid had more in right
    • Dividing into functional divisions – focus on prefrontal cortex
      • Responsible for many higher-order functions, everything that distinguishes humans.
        • Executive control – solve problems, make decisions, how you act in social situations.
        • Phineas Gage had iron rod penetrate his prefrontal cortex. After incident, rude and rough, behaved inappropriately.
      • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Physiological Markers of Emotion
      • Physiological changes that occur which aren’t under your control due to the ANS.
        • Has 2 branches – sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest).
          • Sympathetic: pupils dilate, decrease in salivation, increase respiration/heart rate/glucose release/adrenaline, decrease in digestion
          • Parasympathetic: pupils constrict, decrease respiratory rate/heart rate, increase glucose storage, decrease in adrenaline, increase digestion.
  • Three Components of Emotion and the Universal Emotions
  • Emotions are subjective experiences accompanied by physiological, behavioural, and cognitive changes. All interrelated
    • Physiological components – when surprised HR increase, muscles tense, temperature increase.
    • Cognitive – vary person to person, they’re mental assessments that can include thoughts and assessments of situation. Cognitive experiences result from emotions, and can cause emotions.
    • Behavioural – emotions may bring about behaviours.
    • Emotions are temporary, and can be negative or positive. Also vary in intensity. They’re involuntary.
    • Paul Ekman found 6 universal emotions identified by everyone around the world
      • happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, anger and surprise. Consistent expressions across culture.
    • Darwin hypothesized ability to understand emotion is an innate ability that allowed them better survival.
  • Theories of Emotion
  • Emotion is made of 3 components: cognitive, physiological, and behavioural responses. Which come first?
    • James-Lange theory – (Physiologically based) experience of emotion is due to perception of physiological responses.
      • Holding pet cat, increased HR/neurotransmitters/smile, then happiness. When sad, don’t cry because you’re sad, you’re sad because you cry.
      • physiological arousal followed by aggressive emotions (not simultaneous)
        • Physiological à Emotion
    • Cannon-Bard theory – disagreed with James-Lange, noticed many different emotions had same physiological responses. Believed physiological response and emotion occurred simultaneously.
      • Simultaneously experience arousal and aggression
        • Physiological = emotion
    • Schachter-Singerphysiological and cognitive responses simultaneously form emotion. We don’t feel emotion until we’re able to identify reason for situation.
      • Arousal and interpretation of arousal leads to aggressive emotion.
        • Physiological + Cognitive à Emotion
    • Lazarus Theory – experience of emotion depends on how the situation is appraised (labelled).
      • Stimulus à labelling situation (cognitive) à emotion + physiological response.
      • How we label event is based on cultural/individual differences.
      • Interpretation of event leads to arousal and aggression
        • Cognitive –> Emotion + Physiological
  • People perform best when they are moderately aroused – the Yerkes-Dodson Law
  • Defined as people tend to perform at their optimum ability when they are moderately emotionally stimulated
    • Extremely emotional or non-emotional people are less likely to perform their best
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